The State (1966)
- Aims of the State
- long range: aims expressed in its ideology;
- shorter range: action to conserve and consolidate its powers
- pursuit of the interests of its upper and ruling groups.
- Methods of State Action
- Economic pressures on and military threats to other societies;
- Subversion either to bring about conversion to an approved ideology or policy or to remove a threat;
- Creation of puppet and client states and use of remote wars to protect state interests, contain other powers, protect military positions and promote or destroy ideologies.
- Direct tactical wars to remove small but "close" military threats or centres of other ideologies.
- Total war to save its ideology from a major threat.
- Internal propaganda to win popular acceptance, smear opposition groups, promote certain group interests and consolidate its position.
- Elimination of internal opposition;
- ideological opponents can be killed, arrested, deported, spied on, harassed or made impotent
- opponents of short-range policies can be smeared as ideological opponents, dealt with by identification with external interests, by propaganda or by simple appear to authority;
- opposing interest groups can be dealt with as above or bought off.
- Altruism: aid to other nations (usually with strings attached); internal aid (either because of obvious necessity, pressure of powerful groups, threat of large-scale revolt or external pressures).
- Effects of the State
- Creates and maintains class divisions.
- Causes and prosecutes wars.
- Suppresses individuals and out-groups.
- Retards social progress.
- Divides the world politically, economically and militarily.
- Creates, defines and punishes criminals.
- Opposition to the State
- Demonstrations against war, conscription and military alliances.
- Agitation for legal reforms.
- Extra-state activities - Abschol, Freedom from Hunger.
- Promotion of unpopular movements and ideas.
- Conscientious non-compliance.
- Class warfare.
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Last modified: August 1, 2002